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聯合報英文單字整理






氣候變遷和恐怖主義不只改變人類過去10年的生活,在語言上也產生重大影響,根據全球語言監督組織的統計,「全球暖化」(global warming)和「911」(9/11)分占2000年代使用次數最多字彙的前兩名,美國首位黑人總統「歐巴馬」(Obama)排名第三。


全球語言監督組織(Global Language Monitor)以數學公式追蹤平面及電子媒體使用單字和辭彙的頻率。金融危機後對銀行進行紓困,使「紓困」(bailout)名列第四,第五名是卡翠納颶風重創紐奧良後出現的「被疏散者」(evacuee),第六名是金融「衍生性商品」(derivative)。


接下來是「谷歌」(Google)、「激增」(surge),洋涇濱的「中式英文」(Chinglish)和2004年南亞海嘯後出現的「海嘯」(tsunami)。
全球語言監督總裁派亞克說:「看到21世紀第一個10年的字彙,有當頭棒喝又晦暗的感覺。」


他說,10年來最常用的辭彙則有「氣候變遷」(climate change)、「金融海嘯」(financial tsunami)、「紐約世貿大樓廢墟」(Ground Zero)等。


韋氏辭典19日也公布2009年年度字彙,美國眾議員威爾森在歐巴馬向國會發表健保改革演說時,在台下高喊「你說謊!」(You lie!),遭到眾院「告誡」(admonish)。這次事件促使許多網友上網查admonish這個字的意思,使它榮登年度字彙榜首。


admonish最早出現在14世紀,意思是「提出警告或表達不同意,特別是以和緩、熱切的方式」,與scold或rebuke不同。


其他進入決選的字彙有「就職」(inaugurate)、「大流行的」(pandemic)、「無薪假」(furlough)和「無賴」(rogue),最後一個字與之前共和黨副總統候選人莎拉.裴林有關,她的新書書名就是「耍無賴」(Going Rogue)。




 

1. bailout(n.): [mainly American] money that someone gives or lends to a person or organization with financial problems
bail out(v phr.): to do something to help someone out of trouble, especailly financail problems
ex: Some local businesses have offered to bail out the museum.

 

2. evacuee(n.): someone who is moved away from their home because of a dangerous situation such as a war
evacuate(v.): to leave or to make people leave a place because it is not safe
ex: If the alarm sounds, all students should evacuate immediately.
ex: We were all evacuated because of a bomb scare.

 

3. derivative(n.): a type of investment that will gain in value if the price of a product changes in an expected way  ex. the derivatives markets
derive(v.): to receive or obtain something from something else
be derived from something: products that are derived from animals
derive something from something: They derive such great enjoyment from these simple games.

 

4. surge(n./v.): a sudden increase in something such as price, value, or interest / to increase a lot quickly; SYN: shoot up
ex: Forecasters are predicting a pre-Christmas surge in spending.
ex: Oil price surged.

 

5. admonish(v.): to tell someone severely that they have done something wrong; to tell someone that you do not approve of what they have done
admonish somebody for (doing) something: The witness was admonished for failing to answer the question.

scold(v): to criticize someone, especially a child, severely and usually angrily for something they have done wrong
ex: He never raised his voice or scolded me unfairly. (raise one’s voice: to speak in a loud angry way)

rebuke(v.): to tell someone that they have behaved badly. The usual word is tell off
rebuke somebody for doing something: Members of jury were sharply rebuked for speaking to the press.

 

6. inaugurate(v.): to hold an official ceremony when someone starts doing an important job in government
inaugurate someone as something: On 8 January 1959 de Gaulle was inaugurated as First President of the Fifth Republic.

 

7. pandemic: a disease that affects people over a large area or the whole world
cf. endemic, epidemic

 

8. furlough(n.): a period of time when workers are told not to work, especially because there is not enough money to pay them
ex. Workers are forced to take a long, unpaid furlough.


9. rogue(adj.): a rogue member of a group does not behave in the same way as its other members and is considered dangerous or likely to cause problems
ex. Officials are concerned about rogue regimes that may have nuclear weapons. 




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